Browsing Edwards School of Business by Issue Date
Now showing 1 - 20 of 21
Results Per Page
ItemDeterminants of Occupational Earnings in the United States: A Causal Modeling Approach(International Journal of Management, 1989-06) Fryxell, Gerald E.; Mentzer, Marc S.The "comparable worth" controversy has raised the issue of the fairness of labor markets: Are predominantly female occupations paid less than predominantly male occupations because they are less demanding, or because they are predominantly female? Unfortunately, previous methodologies have failed to account for complex interactions among such variables as seasonality, education, and the different facets of job difficulty. In this paper a causal modeling approach on U.S. data is used in an attempt to disentangle these multiple effects. The results indicate that the strongest direct effects on occupational earnings is educational attainment; this is followed by labor force stability, male domination, and least of all, job difficulty. The results indicate that the female composition of an occupation has a large and negative direct effect on earnings and has a greater overall influence than job difficulty. ItemInternational Loose-Coupling Linkages in the Airline Industry(International Journal of Management, 1992-06) Mentzer, MarcMany airlines have recently been forming equity interlocks with airlines in different countries. In other cases, these linkages are non-equity in nature and emphasise joint-marketing programs. This study indicates that this technique is used primarily by already-large airlines, possibly to increase market dominance in anticipation of international airline deregulation. ItemThe Impact of Discount Airlines on Fares in Canada(Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, 1999-06) Mentzer, Marc S.Analysis of airfares for domestic flights in Canada shows that the presence of low fare carriers has no impact on the fares of major carriers serving a given city pair. WestJet, the sole exception, did have a downward effect on major airlines' fares. ItemDiscount Carriers vs. Air Canada: The Impact on Domestic Airfares, Revisited(Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, 2003-06) Mentzer, Marc S.An analysis of airfares among major Canadian cities indicates that WestJet, alone among the discount carriers, exerts competitive pressure on the fares offered by Air Canada. The role of other discount carriers and the many brands newly created by Air Canada are also discussed. ItemIrrational Optimism in a Declining Industry: Sir Adam Beck's Interurban Railway Proposal(Administrative Sciences Association of Canada, 2004) Mentzer, Marc S.Sir Adam Beck, best known for his advocacy of publicly owned electric utilities, in 1920 sought to build a network of electric interurban railways, essentially long-distance trolleys, in southern Ontario. Beck’s proposal illustrates the phenomenon of irrationally optimistic responses to decline of an industry. ItemThe Payment of Gratuities by Customers in the United States: An Historical Analysis(International Journal of Management, 2013-09) Mentzer, MarcContrary to some travel guidebooks which state that the payment of gratuities (tips) in the US is due to low wage levels or the quirks of minimum wage laws, the roots of US tipping are comprised of a number of historical forces present in the hospitality industry between the Civil War and the early 1920s. Up to 1900, hotel proprietors regarded gratuities as a bribe to the server to give away excessive amounts of food to customers. However, a shift in hoteliers’ attitudes occurred with the increased popularity of the “European Plan”, in which hotel rooms were priced separately from hotel meals. This trend caused owners of dining establishments to regard tips as a supplement to wages rather than as a bribe. In addition, the advent of Prohibition after World War I had the indirect effect of making the European Plan more widespread, and with that trend, the payment of gratuities at meals became even more common. Even though international travel sometimes leads to misunderstandings regarding tipping, the custom is now thoroughly entrenched in US practice. ItemStudying the effect of server side constraints on the makespan of the no-wait flow shop problem with sequence dependent setup times.(International Journal of Production Research, 2015) Samarghandi, HamedThis paper deals with the problem of scheduling the no-wait flow-shop system with sequence-dependent set-up times and server side-constraints. No-wait constraints state that there should be no waiting time between consecutive operations of jobs. In addition, sequence-dependent set-up times are considered for each operation. This means that the set-up time of an operation on its respective machine is dependent on the previous operation on the same machine. Moreover, the problem consists of server side-constraints i.e. not all machines have a dedicated server to prepare them for an operation. In other words, several machines share a common server. The considered performance measure is makespan. This problem is proved to be strongly NP-Hard. To deal with the problem, two genetic algorithms are developed. In order to evaluate the performance of the developed frameworks, a large number of benchmark problems are selected and solved with different server limitation scenarios. Computational results confirm that both of the proposed algorithms are efficient and competitive. The developed algorithms are able to improve many of the best-known solutions of the test problems from the literature. Moreover, the effect of the server side-constraints on the makespan of the test problems is explained using the computational results. ItemA particle swarm optimisation for the no-wait flow shop problem with due date constraints.(International Journal of Production Research, 2016) Samarghandi, HamedThis paper considers the no-wait flow shop scheduling problem with due date constraints. In the no-wait flow shop problem, waiting time is not allowed between successive operations of jobs. Moreover, a due date is associated with the completion of each job. The considered objective function is makespan. This problem is proved to be strongly NP-Hard. In this paper, a particle swarm optimisation (PSO) is developed to deal with the problem. Moreover, the effect of some dispatching rules for generating initial solutions are studied. A Taguchi-based design of experience approach has been followed to determine the effect of the different values of the parameters on the performance of the algorithm. To evaluate the performance of the proposed PSO, a large number of benchmark problems are selected from the literature and solved with different due date and penalty settings. Computational results confirm that the proposed PSO is efficient and competitive; the developed framework is able to improve many of the best-known solutions of the test problems available in the literature. ItemHuman Resource Management Practices and Voluntary Turnover: A Study of Internal Workforce and External Labor Market Contingencies(The International Journal of Human Resource Management, 2016-03-30) Schmidt, Joseph; Willness, Chelsea; Jones, David; Bourdage, JoshuaWe tested relationships between employee quit rates and two bundles of human resource (HR) practices that reflect the different interests of the two parties involved in the employment relationship. To understand the boundary conditions for these effects, we examined an external contingency proposed to influence the exchange-based effects of HR practices on subsequent quit rates—the local industry-specific unemployment rate—and an internal contingency proposed to shape employees’ conceptualization of their exchange relationship—their employment status (i.e., full-time, part-time, and temporary employment). Analyses of lagged data from over 200 Canadian establishments show that inducement HR practices (e.g., extensive benefits) and performance expectation HR practices (e.g., performance-based bonuses) had different effects on quit rates, and the former effect was moderated by unemployment rate. The effects of HR practices on quit rates did not differ between FT and PT employees, but a different pattern of main and interactive effects was found among temporary workers. These findings suggest that employees’ exchange-based decisions to leave may be less affected by the number of hours they expect to work each week, and more by the number of weeks they expect to work. ItemStudying the Reasons for Delay and Cost Overrun in Construction Projects: The Case of Iran.(Journal of Construction in Developing Countries, 2016-07-31) Samarghandi, Hamed; Mousavi, Seyed; Taabayan, Pouria; Mir Hashemi, Ahmad; Willoughby, KeithUndesirable delays in construction projects impose excessive costs and precipitate exacerbated durations. Investigating Iran, a developing Middle Eastern country, this paper focuses on the reasons for construction project delays. We conducted several interviews with owners, contractors, consultants, industry experts and regulatory bodies to accurately ascertain specific delay factors. Based on the results of our industry surveys, a statistical model was developed to quantitatively determine each delay factor's importance in construction project management. The statistical model categorises the delay factors under four major classes and determines the most significant delay factors in each class: owner defects, contractor defects, consultant defects and law, regulation and other general defects. The most significant delay factors in the owner defects category are lack of attention to inflation and inefficient budgeting schedule. In the contractor defects category, the most significant delay factors are inaccurate budgeting and resource planning, weak cash flow and inaccurate pricing and bidding. As for the consultant defects delay factors such as inaccurate first draft and inaccuracies in technical documents have the most contribution to the defects. On the other hand, outdated standard mandatory items in cost lists, outdated mandatory terms in contracts and weak governmental budgeting are the most important delay factors in the law, regulation and other general defects. Moreover, regression models demonstrate that a significant difference exists between the initial and final project duration and cost. According to the models, the average delay per year is 5.9 months and the overall cost overrun is 15.4%. Our findings can be useful in at least two ways: first, resolving the root causes of particularly important delay factors would significantly streamline project performance and second, the regression models could assist project managers and companies with revising initial timelines and estimated costs. This study does not consider all types of construction projects in Iran: the scope is limited to certain types of private and publicly funded projects as will be described. The data for this study has been gathered through a detailed questionnaire survey. ItemOn the exact solution of the no-wait flow shop problem with due date constraints(Computers & Operations Research, 2017-05) Samarghandi, Hamed; Behroozi, MehdiThis paper deals with the no-wait flow shop scheduling problem with due date constraints. In the no-wait flow shop problem, waiting time is not allowed between successive operations of jobs. Moreover, the jobs should be completed before their respective due dates; due date constraints are dealt with as hard constraints. The considered performance criterion is makespan. The problem is strongly NP-hard. This paper develops a number of distinct mathematical models for the problem based on different decision variables. Namely, a mixed integer programming model, two quadratic mixed integer programming models, and two constraint programming models are developed. Moreover, a novel graph representation is developed for the problem. This new modeling technique facilitates the investigation of some of the important characteristics of the problem; this results in a number of propositions to rule out a large number of infeasible solutions from the set of all possible permutations. Afterward, the new graph representation and the resulting propositions are incorporated into a new exact algorithm to solve the problem to optimality. To investigate the performance of the mathematical models and to compare them with the developed exact algorithm, a number of test problems are solved and the results are reported. Computational results demonstrate that the developed algorithm is significantly faster than the mathematical models. ItemDid online publishers “get it right”? Using a naturalistic search strategy to review cognitive health promotion content on internet webpages(BMC Geriatrics, 2017-06-15) Delbaere, Marjorie; Hunter, P.; O'Connel, M.; Cammer, A.; Seaton, J.; Friedrich, T.; Fick, F.Background One of the most common uses of the Internet is to search for health-related information. Although scientific evidence pertaining to cognitive health promotion has expanded rapidly in recent years, it is unclear how much of this information has been made available to Internet users. Thus, the purpose of our study was to assess the reliability and quality of information about cognitive health promotion encountered by typical Internet users. Methods To generate a list of relevant search terms employed by Internet users, we entered seed search terms in Google Trends and recorded any terms consistently used in the prior 2 years. To further approximate the behaviour of typical Internet users, we entered each term in Google and sampled the first two relevant results. This search, completed in October 2014, resulted in a sample of 86 webpages, 48 of which had content related to cognitive health promotion. An interdisciplinary team rated the information reliability and quality of these webpages using a standardized measure. Results We found that information reliability and quality were moderate, on average. Just one retrieved page mentioned best practice, national recommendations, or consensus guidelines by name. Commercial content (i.e., product promotion, advertising content, or non-commercial) was associated with differences in reliability and quality, with product promoter webpages having the lowest mean reliability and quality ratings. Conclusions As efforts to communicate the association between lifestyle and cognitive health continue to expand, we offer these results as a baseline assessment of the reliability and quality of cognitive health promotion on the Internet. ItemStudying the impact of merged and divided storage policies on the profitability of a remanufacturing system with deteriorating revenues(International Journal of Production Economics, 2017-11) Samarghandi, HamedMerging capacity for a remanufacturing system is studied in this paper. In the system under study, there are two streams for returns and each stream has its dedicated processing line. However, the storage space is merged between the streams. Two strategies are investigated and compared in this paper. The first strategy is to divide the storage space between the two streams in the way that each type of return has its predetermined space in the storage area (divided capacity). In the second strategy, storage space is not split between the two streams and each unit of return, independent of its type, is admitted if there is vacant space (merged capacity). In both strategies, the value of remanufactured products decreases over time by a known factor called the decay rate. Mathematical models to maximize the total profit in each strategy is presented and also verified by a simulation model. From a practical point of view, selecting the correct strategy is an important decision for the remanufacturers because choosing the wrong policy leads to lost profits. Numerical experiments reveal that neither of the scenarios is always preferred to the other one and the choice of the optimal strategy depends on the parameters' values and product types. For instance, increasing the remanufacturing cost of the superior product, or increasing the sale price of the inferior product make the merged storage strategy more desirable. On the contrary, increasing the remanufacturing cost of the inferior product, or increasing the sale price of the superior product make the divided storage policy more appealing. ItemDo Trends Matter? The Effects of Dynamic Performance Trends and Personality Traits on Performance Appraisals(Academy of Management, 2017-11-02) Schmidt, JosephTwo studies were conducted to understand how people make overall performance judgments based on dynamic performance trend information and the personality characteristics of ratees. University athletes were sampled in Study 1 and the results showed that improving performance trends resulted in higher appraisals of task performance. Contrary to previous experimental research, raters did not use trend information to make attributions about the targets’ effort or other behavioral characteristics. There were also interactions between performance trends and personality: performance trends were positively associated with task performance ratings for players with high extraversion and low agreeableness, while trends were unrelated to ratings for players at the opposite end of the continuum for these traits. The second study was an experiment designed to test the potential theoretical mechanisms that explained the effects observed in Study 1. The results showed that raters used performance trend information to derive task performance ratings, while they used personality information to derive ratings of citizenship behavior. Attributions about employee effort and ability were based on both performance trends and personality. The results also indicated that raters engaged in more deliberative (controlled) cognitive processing when the target’s personality and performance trend were incongruent, which may explain the interaction effects observed in Study 1. Implications for theories of social cognition and performance appraisal are discussed. ItemMaking Stronger Causal Inferences: Accounting for Selection Bias in Associations Between High Performance Work Systems, Leadership, and Employee and Customer Satisfaction(Journal of Applied Psychology, 2018) Schmidt, Joseph; Pohler, DionneWe develop competing hypotheses about the relationship between high performance work systems (HPWS) with employee and customer satisfaction. Drawing on 8 years of employee and customer survey data from a financial services firm, we used a recently developed empirical technique—covariate balanced propensity score (CBPS) weighting—to examine if the proposed relationships between HPWS and satisfaction outcomes can be explained by reverse causality, selection effects, or commonly omitted variables such as leadership behavior. The results provide support for leader behaviors as a primary driver of customer satisfaction, rather than HPWS, and also suggest that the problem of reverse causality requires additional attention in future human resource (HR) systems research. Model comparisons suggest that the estimates and conclusions vary across CBPS, meta-analytic, cross-sectional, and time-lagged models (with and without a lagged dependent variable as a control). We highlight the theoretical and methodological implications of the findings for HR systems research. ItemContinuous process improvement implementation framework using multi-objective genetic algorithms and discrete event simulation(Business Process Management Journal, 2018) Kang, Parminder; Bhatti, RajbirPurpose Continuous process improvement is a hard problem, especially in high variety/low volume environments due to the complex interrelationships between processes. The purpose of this paper is to address the process improvement issues by simultaneously investigating the job sequencing and buffer size optimization problems. Design/methodology/approach This paper proposes a continuous process improvement implementation framework using a modified genetic algorithm (GA) and discrete event simulation to achieve multi-objective optimization. The proposed combinatorial optimization module combines the problem of job sequencing and buffer size optimization under a generic process improvement framework, where lead time and total inventory holding cost are used as two combinatorial optimization objectives. The proposed approach uses the discrete event simulation to mimic the manufacturing environment, the constraints imposed by the real environment and the different levels of variability associated with the resources. Findings Compared to existing evolutionary algorithm-based methods, the proposed framework considers the interrelationship between succeeding and preceding processes and the variability induced by both job sequence and buffer size problems on each other. A computational analysis shows significant improvement by applying the proposed framework. Originality/value Significant body of work exists in the area of continuous process improvement, discrete event simulation and GAs, a little work has been found where GAs and discrete event simulation are used together to implement continuous process improvement as an iterative approach. Also, a modified GA simultaneously addresses the job sequencing and buffer size optimization problems by considering the interrelationships and the effect of variability due to both on each other. ItemThe Effects of Strategic HR System Differentiation on Firm Performance and Employee Outcomes(Human Resource Management, 2018-09-04) Schmidt, Joseph; Pohler, Dionne; Willness, ChelseaThe purpose of this research was to understand the extent to which firms apply different human resource management systems to different occupations within the same organization (HR differentiation), and how this influences both firm and employee outcomes. We conducted two studies pertaining to these questions. The first study was based on data collected from managers and the results showed that firms differentiate their HR investments based on the strategic value of occupations, which was further associated with the human capital of those occupations; differentiation in human capital was also associated with firm performance. The second study was based on data obtained from non-management employees. The findings of this study indicated that employees who were recipients of less HR system investment had lower fairness perceptions, which were further associated with turnover intentions and organizational citizenship behavior. Although the evidence from these studies suggests that firms may realize benefits from HR differentiation, managers should carefully consider how to balance the effects of differentiation on firm performance and employee well-being before implementing such systems. ItemVisa Policies and Innovation: How Powerful Is Your Passport?(Decision Sciences Institute, 2019) Mentzer, Marc S.The growth of isolationist ideologies in the United States and other countries has generated interest in the relationship between international mobility and innovation. This study focuses on visa policies as an indicator of a country’s openness to cross-border flows of people, and examines the relationship between visa policies and innovation. ItemImplementing responsibility centre management in a higher educational institution(Emerald Publishing, 2021-01-12) Rigby, John; Kobussen, Glen; Kalagnanam, Suresh; Cannon, RobertThe purpose of this study is to examine the design, development, and implementation of responsibility centre management at a mid-sized Canadian university, within the context of decentralized decision making. More specifically our study focused on the design, development and implementation of a revenue and cost allocation process known as transparent activity-based budgeting system (TABBS). The authors conducted this study using a qualitative case study methodology, rooted in grounded theory, as the primary approach to collect and analyze data, and report the findings. Primary data was collected from ten participants using semi-structured interviews. The main takeaways from our research are that (1) such systems take time to design, develop and implement, (2) consultation, communication and information sharing, and model adjustment and refinement are important enabling mechanisms, (3) internal and external events posed significant challenges, (4) although such systems are often designed keeping in mind several intended outcomes there exists the possibility of experiencing some unintended consequences, and (5) the juxtaposition of the above has the potential to negatively or positively impact organizational performance. The research demonstrates that the design, development, and implementation of a complex resource allocation model is an important element of a responsibility centered approach to planning and decision making. It highlights the importance and contribution of enabling mechanisms as well as the challenges that large, complex organizations may confront when introducing change. ItemMajor Saskatchewan Firms And Their Views On Climate Change Impacts On Their Supply Chains: A Look At Modelling, Mitigation And Adaptation, And Implications(2022-04) Zary, TreytonClimate change is an issue that currently does, and will, impact global supply chains. Saskatchewan relies heavily on global supply chains to ensure necessities are available, and Saskatchewan itself as a resource-based economy has a significant role to play in many supply chains, so long as supply chains are able to adapt and adjust to a changing climate. Climate change and supply chains are not issues lacking attention; the literature shows command of the issue, causes of disruptions, and methods of bettering supply chain resiliency outcomes. However, previous research has focused on specific industries or geographies, often not specifically looking at Saskatchewan. Using qualitative interviews with employees of firms critical to the functioning of Saskatchewan society, I am able to deeper analyze how Saskatchewan firms are preparing for the impacts of climate change on their supply chains, if they are at all. Results from the interviews were similar to what was echoed in the Literature Review; in general, some preparations have been done by some Saskatchewan firms. Other firms have done limited preparations or thinking about the issue of climate change impacts on their supply chains partly due to the difficulties in modelling future impacts, misguided financial incentives, and the ‘wickedness’ of the issue. My findings allow the public and policymakers to gain a greater understanding of Saskatchewan society’s readiness for climate change impacts, specifically those impacts that will bring forth issues in delivering the goods and services required in the modern day.